Your address will show here +12 34 56 78

Thought Leadership

A place to keep up-to-date with the latest marketing trends

Strategy

The best way to create meaningful connections with your customer at every stage of their journey is to deliver consistent and valuable content. And with face-to-face contact limited throughout 2020, many businesses turned to creating content to engage their audience.

 

So, with more and more property brands using content to drive their customer relationships, our sister brand, Content Republic, has listed four important trends you need to be aware of to stay ahead of the competition.

 

1. Have a strong content strategy that involves digital
If there was one thing businesses needed to learn quickly in 2020, it was how to reach their audience in new, innovative ways that didn’t involve face-to-face contact. As a result, we saw a surge in social media and content marketing activities as brands found new ways to be where their customers are (at home, on their devices!).

 

In 2021, we can expect that this focus on social and digital content will keep growing, as brands continue to realise that having a strong content marketing strategy and social media presence is no longer optional – it’s fundamental!

 

More than this, content marketers in 2021 will need to continue to demonstrate and build upon the skills they were forced to adopt – flexibility, nimbleness and an ability to seamlessly adapt to new realities.

 

“Studies on content marketing show that one of the key differences between the most successful and least successful businesses is the use of documented content marketing strategies.”
Neal Schaffer, Chief Marketing Officer – Fractional

 

2. Get behind the camera
It’s safe to say, whether acting as a brand or consumer, we all saw and experienced an increase in live videos on our feeds in 2020. After all, if your customers can’t come to you, then you’ll need to go to them!

Moving into 2021, brands need to be aware that expensive, polished and highly produced videos aren’t necessarily the most engaging. More than anything, customers want to engage with content that is authentic, real, humanised and entertaining.

“The uncertainty of 2020 has taught us the importance of content as a tool for reaching our audience when many of our typical engagement points are closed, cancelled, or unavailable.”

Melanie Deziel, Chief Content Officer – StoryFuel

 

If you committed to delivering live or authentic pre-recorded videos in your social media and content marketing activities in 2020, keep doing it in 2021. Your audience will continue to want to get you know you, your products and services from the comforts of home, and video is the best way to do it.

 

“With 5.11 billion unique mobile users in the world, mobile usage is at an all-time high. And the most convenient content format for mobile is video. Creating live videos gives your users a great mobile experience and it’s convenient to consume.”
Neal Schaffer, Chief Marketing Officer – Franctional

 

3. Be empathic
 Now more than ever, businesses need to be sensitive and listen to what matters to their audience. As customers deal with uncertainty in their daily lives, it becomes necessary to focus on values like integrity and transparency. Also consider how you can respond to, and evoke emotions through the creation of content. By building content around values that matter to your audience, you’ll also create a content strategy that forms an emotional connection with customers.

 

“People want to feel heard and appreciated as an individual and they have the power to ask for that, because there is so much market saturation. Mass media marketing is dead. People want communication at a 1 to 1 level in a manner that’s relevant for them. Especially due to COVID-19, empathy plays a strong role in making sure that customers are satisfied with your marketing and communication strategy.”
Adriana Stein, Director – IDI Consultancy

 

4. Repurpose and recycle
In 2021, you’ll save time and money by having a repurposing strategy for your content. Consider how you can transform one type of content into another. For example, can a 5-minute video be cut down into 10 different 30-second videos to share across social media? Can your product brochures be divided into multiple blogs that sit on your website? Can your downloadable guides be cut up into bite-sized chunks and sent to your database in an email newsletter?

 

Giving your content not only a new life, but a longer shelf life by turning it into different forms, is a fantastic way to appeal to bigger audiences and generate more interest.

5. Prepare for the unknown through innovation
Expect the unexpected; that’s a lesson that 2020 taught the world. But how can marketers realistically prepare for the unknown and the uncertain?

 

The answer? Innovation.

 

Try new things. Break the rules. Fail. Try again. Be different. Be bold. Take risks. Be flexible. Be willing to embrace change even before it’s required. The future belongs to marketers who are willing to adapt long before they need to. In 2021 and beyond, make sure your content marketing activities stem from innovative strategies

 

How will you respond to 2021’s emerging trends?

If your property business needs support re-invigorating and optimising its sales, customer experience and content marketing initiatives to respond to new shifts, expectations and behaviours, the Property Republic and Content Republic teams are here to help.

 

Read more in our PRX Magazine: The 2021 Trends Edition.

0

Content Marketing, Strategy

What is it?

Recently, Instagram rolled out their newest feature called ‘Guides.’ It allows users to create more scrollable content by collecting and curating posts, making it easier than ever to share information in an easy-to-digest format.

 

You can choose three different formats for your Guides:

 

  • Places

  • Products

  • Posts

 

Guides can be found on your profile between the feed and IGTV icons. They can be displayed on your profile, in your feed, on the Guides page and in the Explore page, which means they have a high visibility rate.

 

Should you be using Instagram Guides for your project or property business?

It’s recommended that you have a diverse and multi-platform social media presence. However, if your team is lacking the budget, time or resources to commit to integrating guides into your Instagram strategy in a meaningful and consistent way, don’t feel like you need to jump on the guides bandwagon just because it’s new and shiny. It may be something you come back to in a few months.

 

How to get started

If you’ve decided that Instagram guides fits within your strategy and capabilities, the best way to get started is by repurposing and re-sharing content that you’ve already posted to Instagram, to create comprehensive and step-by-step ‘how-to’ guides.

 

For example, if you’ve published multiple posts about finance options for FHB, compile these into one Instagram guide titled ‘5 finance tips for FHB’ (or something to that effect). The same can be done for posts about your project, the local area, benefits of building a brand-new home and so on.

 

For a break-down of all of Instagram’s best practices, read this handbook from our content specialist brand, Content Republic.

0

Content Marketing, Strategy

What is it?

Instagram’s newest feature, reels, allows users record, edit, and share 15-second multi-clip videos with audio, effects and new, in-app creative tools.

 

How property businesses can use reels

Since videos are such an effective content type, incorporating reels into your Instagram strategy can enhance your social media activity, offering a new way to entertain and educate your community. Some ways you can use reels to engage your audience include:

 

  • Display home walk-throughs

  • Working from home clips

  • Showcase amenities within the community

  • Client testimonials

  • Fun meet and greets with sales representatives and important figures in your community

  • Development and community updates

  • Behind-the-scenes footage from events

  • Ask homeowners to showcase their home in their Reels and tag your brand

 

Also consider how you can repurpose and reimagine your current assets. If you’ve got a suite of videos you’ve been using for social posts and stories, why not use these existing assets to create new reels? Or, if you currently post 5 Instagram stories a week, why not try posting 3 stories and 2 reels each week?

 

If you’re still unsure if using reels is right for your property business and need some advice, this blog might help you decide.

 

How to create your reels

Reels can be recorded one at a time, simultaneously, or through video uploads from a phone’s gallery. Users have the option to save the reel as a draft, change its cover image, add a caption and hashtags, and tag friends. 

 

Reels can be found at the bottom of Instagram camera. There are available tools on the left side of the screen to create the reel, including:

 

  • Audio: Search for a song from the Instagram music library. You can also use your own original audio by simply recording a reel with it.

  • AR Effects: Select one of the many effects in the effect gallery, created both by Instagram and creators all over the world, to record multiple clips with different effects. 

  • Timer and Countdown: Set the timer to record any of your clips hands-free.

  • Align: Line up objects from your previous clip before recording your next to help create seamless transitions.

  • Speed: Speed up or slow down part of the video or audio you selected.

 

How to share your Reels

If you have a Public Account, you can share your reel to a dedicated space in Explore, where it has the chance to be seen and discovered by the wider Instagram community. You can also share your reel with your followers by posting it to your Feed. When you share reels featuring certain songs, hashtags, or effects, your reel may also appear on dedicated pages when someone clicks on that song, hashtag, or effect. 

 

Instagram Reels vs TikTok

Reels can be likened to Instagram’s very own version of TikTok. Only time will tell if TikTok will meet the same fate as Snapchat when Instagram copied its iconic Stories features. 

 

For more information on using TikTok in property, check out our Marketing Clinic Webinar: Engaging with Millennial Platforms.

0

Strategy

We recently conducted an industry wide Marketing and Sales survey to better understand the relationship between the Development, Sales and Marketing functions. The aim of the survey was to explore what pain-points exist around sales certainty and forecasting and where the industry’s strategic focus lies heading into FY21 and beyond.

 

According to the results, the top three MARKETING CHALLENGES faced by respondents include:

  1. Customer Conversion (32%)

  2. Customer Education (28%)

  3. Achieving Cut Through (28%)

If you’re struggling to enhance your conversions, education and cut-through, here’s some food for thought:

 

Customer Conversion

  • Increased conversion rates can be achieved by providing a number of meaningful touchpoints early on, ensuring your sales team is serious about data integrity and by making sure that follow-up is structured to address your customers’ needs, not just ticking a box. 

  • Having your customer’s lifecycle journey mapped will help improve their experience which will naturally lead to increased conversion and sales.

 

Customer Education

  • The customer lifecycle is a journey. Not all customers are ready to buy now. Educate first, sell second.

  • Consistently publish educational and entertaining content in a variety of formats – blogs, socials, videos, infographics, images.

 

Achieving Cut Through

  • A well-executed customer journey will help you achieve cut-through and stand out from your competitors.

  • Understanding your customer segments will help you create relevant, valuable content that solves your customers problems/pain points.

  • Knowing your customers interests will help you create content that turns heads. Do they appreciate Design? Community? Gardening? Cooking? Local night life?

 

We’d love to work with you to deliver customer experience, social media and content marketing strategies that will increase conversions, educate your audience and achieve cut-through. Talk to us if you’d like to start enhancing your property marketing customer experience efforts.

 

Discover more findings, insights and observations in our 2020 Marketing and Sales survey.

0

Content Marketing, Strategy

August – the final month of the Australian winter, where mornings get crisper and days become longer. For Melburnian property marketers in 2020, August is a month of uncertainty as COVID restrictions toughen and market conditions remain challenging.

 

Because it’s more essential than ever that you’re engaging with your community online, we’ve got some fun and creative content ideas to help you drive engagement this August:

 

International Cat Day – August 8th

Today’s the purr-fect day to celebrate our furry friends and purr-ecious WFH pals. If you’re feline creative, here are some claw-some ways you can engage with your audience today:

 

Blog idea: Write a blog with tips on how homeowners can ‘cat-proof’ their new home so their pristine carpets, architraves and curtains can remain scratch-free.

Community idea: Engage your community by asking them to post a photo of their feline family members to socials and tag your brand’s handle in the caption. You could also add incentive by turning this initiative into a competition and offer a prize for the best post.

Brand idea: Ask your cat parent workmates to share photos or short videos of their purr-fect pet as they work from home. Share these images with your community to add personality to your brand’s online presence.

 

Book Lovers Day – August 9th

A day to curl up with your favourite read.

 

Blog idea: Write a blog about must-read books for your customers. It could be about interior design, garden maintenance, mindfulness, finance for FHB or a whole range of topics. People love listicles, so don’t be afraid to curate a list of useful books with the appropriate hyperlinks!

Spotify idea: In the days before Book Lovers Day, ask your social media community to share their favourite mindful music – tunes that can be played in the background while studying or reading. Add these songs to a Spotify playlist and share it with your community.

Community idea: Ask your community to share a photo their favourite book (audio, digital or hardback), with a caption that explains why to your Facebook page. Turn this activity into a competition by picking a winner and offering a prize worthy of a bookworm.

 

Left Handers Day – August 13th

A day to celebrate the uniqueness and differences of left handers.

 

Infographic ideas: X fun facts about left handers.

Brand idea: share photos of your left-handed team mates on your socials. It’s always nice to publicly acknowledge your team members for their uniqueness! It’ll also add personality to your brand.

Blog idea: X hacks for left handers.

 

Cupcake Day – August 17th

A day to sit back, relax and cake it easy.

 

Blog idea: X easy cupcake recipes.

Video idea: Film a video where you make a cupcake recipe in your display home’s kitchen. Throughout the video, also highlight the key features of the display home’s kitchen – the island bench that features plenty of space to prepare, the soft-close drawers to store your utensils, the butler’s pantry to wash up when you have guests, the high-quality appliances. This video idea not only provides a fun, entertaining video for your followers, it also showcases the beauty of the display home. Just make sure the kitchen is thoroughly cleaned when you’re finished!

Competition idea: Ask the cupcake lovers in your Facebook community to bake their favourite cupcake recipe and post a photo of it, tagging your brand. Choose the best or most creative as the winner, and offer a prize fit for a cupcake queen (or king!).

 

Senior Citizens Day – August 21st

A day to honour and respect our elders.

 

Spotify idea: In the days/weeks leading up to Senior Citizens Day, ask your community to share their favourite songs from 50s, 60s and 70s. Compile these songs into a Spotify playlist and share it on your social channels.

Video or live webinar idea: To encourage wellness and movement within the older generations of your community, ask a local fitness instructor to film a low impact class that’s suitable for seniors. It could be streamed live, or pre-recorded and shared across your socials.

Blog idea: X funny baby boomer phrases.

 

International Dog Day – August 26th

A day to celebrate man’s fur-nomenal best friend.

 

Video idea: DIY dog treats – film a video where you make a dog treat recipe in your display home’s kitchen. Throughout the video, also highlight the key features of the kitchen.

Infographic idea: X health benefits of having a pet dog.

Community idea: Engage your community by asking them to post a photo of their canine family members to socials and tag your brand’s handle in the caption. You could also add incentive by turning this initiative into a competition and offer a prize for the best post.

 

We hope you’re filled with a ton of inspiration to make August a fun, innovative and captivating month for content!

 

If you’d like discover how Property Republic can help you deliver consistently valuable content, get in touch. We have a range of content marketing offers available to help you enhance your content marketing activities without breaking the budget.

 

0

Content Marketing, Strategy

July is an important month in our calendar. It marks the start of a new financial year and also marks that we’re halfway through the calendar year, making it a great time to pause, reflect and adjust our strategies for the upcoming months. It also plunges Melbourne into a frosty midwinter, meaning it’s officially time to bring out the umbrellas, padded jackets and lay that extra blanket on the bed.

 

This financial year, creating engaging content for your audience will be incredibly important. Developing consistent content will ensure you entertain, inspire, educate and inform your audience who are online more than ever before, due to the coronavirus pandemic.

 

Here’s how you can harness July’s days of note to create compelling content:

 

International Joke Day – July 1st

A day to encourage laughter as we hit the halfway point of the year.

 

Blog idea: X hilarious jokes to share with your family

Video idea: Use your iPhone to film your sales team telling their favourite jokes and post to your social channels

Competition idea: ask your Facebook community to either write or record themselves telling their favourite joke and tag your brand. Pick your favourite and the winner receives a prize chosen by you.

Infographic idea: X reasons why laughing is the best medicine

 

International Kissing Day – July 6th

A day to celebrate this simple but powerful gesture.

 

Blog idea: X interesting facts on how different cultures see the kiss

Social media idea: Encourage your social media community to send a ‘virtual kiss’ to someone they love but can’t see in person due to isolation or distance.

Spotify idea: Prior to July 6th, create a Spotify playlist featuring songs with the word ‘kiss’. Ask your community to nominate the songs they’d like featured on the playlist by posting to your Facebook page. Launch the playlist on International Kissing Day so your community can listen to it!

Competition idea: ask your Facebook community to get creative and write a poem or rhyme featuring the word ‘kiss’. The next day, choose your favourite poem and the winner received a prize chosen by you.

 

World Chocolate Day – July 7th

A day to indulge in everybody’s favourite sweet treat!

 

Blog idea: X easy chocolate recipes

Video idea: if you’re a builder, use one of your display homes or if you’re a developer, ask a builder partner if you can use one of their displays, to film a video where you make a chocolate dessert in the home’s kitchen. It can be a no-bake recipe if you don’t want to use the appliances, or any recipe that seems appropriate to you. Throughout the video, also highlight the key features of the display home’s kitchen – the island bench that features plenty of space to prepare, the soft-close drawers to store your utensils, the butler’s pantry to wash up when you have guests, the high-quality appliances. This video idea not only provides a fun, entertaining video for your followers, it also showcases the beauty of the display home. Just make sure the kitchen is thoroughly cleaned when you’re finished!

Infographic idea: X things you didn’t know about chocolate

Competition idea: Ask the chocaholics in your Facebook community to bake their favourite chocolate recipe and post a photo of it, tagging your brand. Choose the best, most creative or most decadent looking dessert as the winner, and offer a prize fit for a chocolate-lover. It could be a hamper filled with chocolatey treats, or a gift voucher for Haigh’s or the Lindt store.

 

World Emoji Day – July 17th

A day to appreciate the power of the humble emoticon.

 

Video idea: Use your iPhone to video your sales team talking about their favourite emoji and why.

Competition idea: Throughout the day, schedule a few posts whose captions are made up entirely of emojis. For each post, the first person to guess the sentence correctly is the winner! It’s up to you how many posts you schedule throughout the day, and what prize you give to winners. Make sure you let your community know about the competition a few days before it takes place to encourage participation.

Social media community idea: challenge your community to communicate using emojis as much as possible for the whole day!

Event idea: Host a community screening of the Emoji Movie. It’s up to you how and where you choose to screen it, but if COVID restrictions apply in your state, please abide by the rules. You may need to have a registration process so that only the first 20 or 50 people to register can attend, and ensure seats are spread appropriately for social distancing and sanitised before and after the screening.

 

National Cousins Day – July 24th and National Aunt and Uncle Day – July 26th

A day to celebrate your family connections near and far.

 

Blog idea: X local parks to visit with your family.

Social media community idea: encourage your social media community to share their favourite photos with their cousins on National Cousins Day and their Aunts and Uncles on National Aunt and Uncle Day, and write a caption explaining what they love about them.

Video idea: X easy DIY card designs to give to your cousin/Aunt/Uncle.

 

International Friendship Day – July 30th

A day to appreciate the amazing, supportive, caring friends in your life.

 

Social media community idea: encourage your social media community to share their favourite photos with their best friend and write a caption that explains what they love about them.

Video idea: X DIY gift ideas for your BFF

Competition idea: ask your community to write a short poem about what friendship means to them and tag your brand and the friend(s) it’s about. Choose a winner and give them a prize of your choice.

Spotify idea: create a Friendship Day playlist a week in advance and ask your social media community to nominate their favourite songs about friendship. Launch the playlist on the day so your community can listen!

 

National Avocado Day – July 31st

A day to celebrate every Melburnian’s favourite over-priced breakfast food – the avo!

 

Blog idea: X health benefits of avocado

Video idea: X easy, delicious avocado recipes

Competition idea: Ask the avo-holics in your Facebook community to make their favourite avocado recipe and post a photo of it, tagging your brand. Choose the best, most creative or most delicious looking dish as the winner, and offer a prize fit for an avo-lover.

Community idea: Buy a box of avocados and give one to each person who visits your display home or sales suite on National Avocado Day. This small, cute and unique gesture will definitely make your brand memorable!

 

Harry Potter’s Birthday – July 31st

A day to celebrate the world’s most famous wizard!

 

Blog idea: Top X films to watch in your home theatre

Video idea: DIY Harry Potter costume

Event idea: Host a community screening of Harry Potter. It’s up to you how and where you choose to screen it, but if COVID restrictions apply in your state, please abide by the rules. You may need to have a registration process so that only the first 20 or 50 people to register can attend, and ensure seats are spread appropriately for social distancing and sanitised before and after the screening.

OR

Host a community-wide Harry Potter quiz. You can do this virtually over Zoom, or host it at a community hub, of course ensuring that social distancing and hygiene regulations are strictly followed.

Competition idea: Throughout the day, schedule a few posts whose captions are quotes from a Harry Potter book or film. For each post, the first person to guess the character that says the quote is the winner! It’s up to you how many posts you schedule throughout the day, and what prize you give to winners. Make sure you let your community know about the competition a few days before it takes place to encourage participation.

 

We hope you’re filled with a tonne of inspiration to make July a fun, creative and compelling month for content!

 

If you’d like discover how Property Republic can help you deliver consistently valuable content, get in touch.

 

0

Content Marketing, Strategy

You’ve created some highly engaging videos for your brand – but where should you post them? There are two popular video platforms you can utilise when it comes to sharing your content – YouTube and Vimeo – and it’s important that you’re able to identify if one, both or neither are suitable for your brand and the quality and style of your property videos.

 

Both YouTube and Vimeo require higher quality videos for a more immersive cinema experience and while they offer similar functions, there are also underlying key differences. Let’s take a look at these platforms more closely to help you decide if they’re the right fit for your video content.

 

A bit about each platform…

 

YouTube

 

One of the most popular video sharing platforms, YouTube is also the second largest search engine, next to Google. It’s where users can watch, like, share, comment on, and even upload their own videos. Some of the most notable features of YouTube include:

 

  • Allows creators to earn money through showing advertisements on their videos

  • Anyone can join the site for free, although they do offer premium subscriptions to viewers

  • Video creators can join the platform’s partnership program when they have over 10,000 views

 

Vimeo

 

Created in 2004, Vimeo has become one of the most popular video-hosting sites in the past decade. Just like YouTube, this site offers users a place to upload, share and view high-quality videos.

 

  • Creators can make money by selling their video content to Vimeo on Demand

  • Users can join the site for free to enjoy basic features

  • Uploaders can choose among several subscription plans

  • No advertisements

 

Important comparisons

 

Upload Limit

 

YouTube allows users to upload an unlimited number of videos. However, their uploads are limited to 15 minutes per video for default accounts. In order to upload longer videos, you’ll need a verified account. For verified users, the maximum upload size is 128GB or 12 hours.

 

Vimeo has a range of plans that users can choose from to suit their needs, with each plan offering different abilities and limitations. Each plan has a specific storage capacity, with the limit ranging from 25GB to 5TB of storage each year.

 

Audience Reach

 

If you want to post to a platform with superior audience reach, YouTube is the place. To date, there are 2 billion active monthly YouTube users, compared to Vimeo’s 240 million.

 

Vimeo holds the distinction of being a community-driven platform. This means that while you won’t get the same traffic to your videos as on YouTube, you’re more likely to get loyal viewers who are genuinely interested and invested in your content.

 

Video Quality

 

YouTube gives freedom to users to upload anything they want, which means that videos of all qualities can be uploaded. Because of YouTube’s huge reach, even if you produced a video of exceptional quality, it could get lost in the clutter of less professional and lower-quality videos.

 

For more tips on how you can successfully engage and convert your audiences with video content, download our guide.

 

If you want to take a deep dive into Vimeo, read our blog.

0

Strategy, Workshops

Property businesses are currently navigating new territory. 

 

Visiting display villages and land sales centres or attending community events are no longer options for customers on their property buying journey. To cope with the new norms of social distancing and working from home, many businesses have had to adapt the way they operate and how they reach and connect with customers. 

 

In order to equip property businesses with the insights they need to adapt to this new normal, Property Republic recently launched a series of webinars, called Marketing Clinics. 

 

Covering a range of content marketing, customer experience and property-focused topics, our Marketing Clinics have acquired a number of loyal participants (who we like to call our webinites) who have shared some encouraging feedback: 

 

‘’I have really enjoyed the Property Republic Marketing Clinics. Judi and her team are experts in their field and it’s great to get their insights through their clinics.  I’m looking forward to putting the knowledge I have gained into my marketing strategies’’

Rachel Glass, Project Marketing Specialist, Core Projects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Having worked with Judi since 2017, one of her greatest qualities is her generosity to share her wealth of knowledge to anyone who will listen. Judi and the team at Property Republic are the content marketing and customer experience experts in the property industry, and to have access to their free marketing clinics is marketing gold.”

Monika Pilekic, Head of Marketing, Lifestyle Communities

 

 

 

 

 

We’re excited to continue welcoming both returning and new attendees who are seeking to enhance their marketing efforts and also appreciate that our webinites are learning new things and sharing this with us. 

 

Click here to catch up on our Marketing Clinics to date and if you’d like to participate in future Marketing Clinics, sign up to our newsletter and follow us on social media to make sure you receive all the details.

0

Content Marketing, Strategy, Workshops

On Friday 28th February, the Property Republic team hosted our first ever event – The Ultimate Content Planning Workshop.   The day’s activities intended to educate attendees on the many ways an effective content marketing strategy can benefit their brand and enhance their customer experience. It also encouraged participants to generate ideas on the many ways they can create, curate, repurpose and organise content.   The ultimate goal of our workshop was to help participants generate enough content to populate their calendars for an entire year – a task that

0

Content Marketing
I recently read an interview in The New York Times about a tech-news-site, The Information, that keeps all their content behind a paywall. This concept is actually becoming more and more common in the news industry, as publishers struggle to cover their expenses.What sets The Information apart from most other news organisations though, is their big picture, in-depth, focus. Their reporters don’t just write about something they’ve heard, read or think their audience wants to read about, they’re experts in their fields and their articles are jam-packed with research, background
0